Free «Vitamins» Essay
Table of Contents
Vitamins are organic substances of plant, or rarely animal nature, with diverse chemical structures, which are required in small doses for the normal functioning of a body. Vitamins are a part of enzymes, in other words, biological catalysts in the processes of living cells.
How they work
Vitamins are organic compounds necessary for the life of a human body. They are agents of various biochemical classes, but similar in physiological effect – they all have a strong biological activity and are involved in the metabolic process. Vitamins play an important role in the digestion of proteins, fats and carbohydrates in the protective functions of various organs.
Vitamins are essential for the normal course of nearly all biochemical processes in a body. They provide the function of the endocrine glands, that is the production of hormones, also increase mental and physical performance, support a body's resistance to adverse environmental factors (heat, cold, infection, intoxication), etc. This list is far from being complete.
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Most vitamins are not synthesized in a body and come with food, mainly of plant origin. There are more than 30 vitamins, but their chemical structure is not studied. It has long been established that the long absence of fresh plant foods, especially vegetables and fruits, cause severe chronic diseases in a body, even with an excess of the necessary proteins, fats, carbohydrates, salts. The lack of certain vitamins is called avitaminosis. A person suffers from various symptoms from dizziness to depression. What is more, an abundance of vitamins and their excessive intake can cause an opposite disease – hypervitaminosis.
Vitamins can be assigned to a group of biologically active compounds which have an effect on metabolism in minute concentrations. Hence, vitamins are compounds of different chemical structures that are necessary for the proper functioning of almost all body processes. They increase a body's resistance to a variety of extreme factors and infectious diseases, promote detoxification and excretion of toxic substances, etc. Thus, it is clear that the role of vitamins in a human life is very high, especially during certain seasons of a year.