Free «Annotated Bibliography on Ginkgo Bilboa» Essay

Annotated Bibliography on Ginkgo Bilboa

Liguo F.; Nan, L.; Mill, R. R.(1999). "Ginkgo biloba". in Wu, Z. Y.; Raven, P.H.; Hong,

D.Y. Flora of China. St. Louis: Missouri Botanical Garden Press. pp. 8-17.

The authors explore the history of the cultivation of ginkgo bilboa. They connect the significance of the tree to several cultural practices such as Confucianism and Buddhism. This is linked to the distribution of the tree in countries like China, Japan and Korea where it’s the Buddhism and Confucianism. The relation between the plant’s methods of propagation, the cultural practices of its users as well as its adaptability to an urban environment is discussed. The unique survival capability is exemplified by the survival of six of these trees in the wake of the Hiroshima atomic bomb attack. Their ability of these trees to recover from the explosion is an demonstration of their versatility and adaptability of the trees. The cultural significance of the tree is intertwined with its biological aspect drawing parallels between its resilience and beliefs in sustainability and endurance which these cultures subscribe to. This is why the tree is the insignia used in the Japanese tea ceremony. Additionally, the tree has been adapted by the Peoples Republic of China as its national tree.

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Raven, H. P.; Evert, F.R and Eichhorn E.S. (2005). Biology of Plants.7th ed.New York: W.

H. Freeman and Company. pp. 420–430.

Raven, Evert and Eichhorn give a scientific insight that explores the origin of the Ginkgo tree. They discuss the prevalence of this unique species citing its occurrence in China, South Korea and Japan. The botanical classification of the plant as well as it being categorically described as a living fossil is also discussed. They further describe the similarity in the genetic makeup of the surviving species of the tree and link it with the historical background of the tree. The authors attempt to explain its survival and why its natural occurrence is in just two areas in China and not the rest of the world. The morphological, etymological, and paleontological aspects of the plant are discussed in great depth. The reproduction of the tree and reason why it may have maintained its methods of reproductions from the age of the dinosaurs (Jurassic era) is also demonstrated linking it to its survival. The habitat and distribution patterns of the plant are also included in the book.

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Mahadevan, P. Y. (2008). "Multifaceted therapeutic benefits of Ginkgo biloba L.: chemistry,

efficacy, safety, and uses." Journal of Food Science 73 (1): 14–29.

Mahadevan captures the culinary uses and benefits of the gingkgo biloba. The seeds of the tree are the part that is eaten primarily in Asia as a traditional food. The occasions in which the seeds are served are also discussed which includes Chinese weddings as well as the Chinese celebration of the New Year. The preference of Ginkgo bilboa by the Chinese that has been incorporated in the culture is explained to be as a result of the therapeutic effects accrued from its consumption. Furthermore, the Chinese deem the seeds to possess aphrodisiac properties. The culinary use of ginkgo in Japan is also mentioned and the manner in which the seeds have been used to make several Japanese dishes. The overconsumption of the seeds especially by children is said to result in poisoning. The chemical content of the seed’s raw gametophyte contains MPN (4-methoxypyridoxine) that is responsible for the toxic effect on children. Safety measures suggested by the author include not to allowing children to eat more than five seeds on daily basis for prolonged periods of time. The prevention and treatment of this form of poisoning is tackled in the journal. The administration of pyridoxine is recommended as a safety measure for both prevention and treatment. Another safety measure discussed focuses on individuals with high sensitivity to coming into contact with the seeds. Signs and symptoms of contact with the sacrotesta of the seeds is described in detail. Handling procedures to those individuals with high sensitivity to the seeds which includes the use of disposable gloves is elaborated in the safety section of the journal article.

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Blumenthal, M; Goldberg, A & Brinckman J, eds. “Ginkgo biloba leaf extract.” In Herbal Medicine: Expanded Commission E Blumenthal, Goldberg and Brinckman explore the medicinal properties of the plant discussing the capability to metabolize alcohol through enzyme found in the seeds of the Ginkgo tree. The authors analyze the active ingredients of the ginkgo bilboa extract which number to 40 components. They emphasize that the medicinal potency of the extract is as a result of two compounds: terpenoids and flavonoids. The flavanoids have an anti-oxidant property that serves to protect blood vessels, the retina of the eye, heart muscles and nerves from damage. Furthermore the other component (terpenoids), which include ginkgolides serve to bolster the flow of blood in the vessel as well as reduce the stickiness of platelets. The history of its medicinal purposes is traced back to the Chinese who have practiced it since 2800B.C. Furthermore, the history of the treatment using the leaf extract is examined from the archaic Chinese practices. The Chinese used it to treat asthma, allergies and bronchitis. The modern application of ginkgo biloba as alternative medicine is well. Its function as a heart tonic was adopted by other countries. The drug has been used to effectively ameliorate memory loss, sexual dysfunction, mental function is improved, enhancement of blood circulation, and the prevention of Alzheimer’s disease. The negative interactions of the drug are discussed and the manner in which a combination with other drugs may exacerbate the side effects of ginkgo bilbo extracts. The side effects of are mentioned in the text. Some of them include: headaches, diarrhea, gastrointestinal discomfort, tinnitus, increased hemorrhage hence not to be used by hemophilic individuals, nausea, multiple sclerosis, and the risks it poses to pregnant women.

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__(1998). PDR for Herbal Medicines. Montvale, NJ: Medical Economics Company, 1998.pp13-64

The chapter discusses the economic and medicinal benefits of ginkgo bilboa. The chapter analyses its spread since its introduction into Europe in the eighteenth century. The economic aspect is from its medicinal use that unequivocally increased its popularity. North America is mentioned as one of the regions with the highest demand for the herbal medicine. Its is also imperative to note that the herb is recognized as the most researched plant with over three hundred studies having being carried out on it. This is attributed to its numerous abilities to treat or manage several diseases and conditions. Its economic viability has resulted to its spread in use and sale all over the world making it the most sought for drug in herbal medicine. The active ingredients of the tree are described to be found in its leaves. This explains why there are plantations of the tree in South Korea, Europe and North America. The trees are cultivated for exploitation of the leaf extract. A standard dose of the extract is obtained from 50 fresh leaves of the tree. The adaptability of the plant is what explains its diverse environments where it is commercially exploited. The efficacy of the extracts of the dry leaves of the tree is also broken down and its commercial availability is given a mention. The standard dosage and its variations in different parts of the world are coupled with the market for the extract in this chapter. Forms in which the extract is available in different parts of the world is given precedence and it is worthwhile to mention that the extract is available in the form of prescription drugs available as over the counter medicine in Europe. On the converse, the availability of the extract in the United States is in a capsule and /or tablet form. The safety and toxicity of the therapeutic dosage is discussed.

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